Music at Southwestern Adventist University
An Historical Overview
The forerunner of Southwestern Adventist University was an academy known as the Adventist Conference School when it opened its doors in January 1894. By year's end it was called Keene Industrial Academy, a name it would carry until 1916, when it became Southwestern Junior College. Although renamed Southwestern College in 1962, it was not accredited as a senior college until 1970. It became Southwestern Adventist College in 1977 and Southwestern Adventist University in 1994.
Southwestern Adventist University was founded less than twenty years after the first Seventh-day Adventist arrived in Texas in 1875. In 1878, the Texas Conference organized with a membership of 200 in four churches, and, in 1884, two years after the founding of Battle Creek College in Michigan, a school of 50 was opened in Granbury, Texas.
Although other schools started in the state in the next nine years, in 1893 the Texas Conference voted to establish a central school at Keene. When it was announced that year that the school would be opening, most of the Adventist families in the state moved into the area so that their children could attend the school, some at first living only in tents. They started arriving in the spring of 1893 and by the time the school opened in January 1894, a sizeable new community of Adventists existed in what at that time was considered a "wild, barren place."1
By the end of its first year, the school was named Keene Industrial Academy, a place where practical skills would be taught. Faculty members were also expected to have mechanical or industrial skills.
Even with this emphasis on practical skills, by the turn of the century, music courses were listed in a promotional flyer. The 1901 graduation class included twelve music graduates, four in Classical Music and ten in the Sacred Music course, with two students completing both programs.2
Carrie Hill Hobbs, music teacher from 1898 to 1900, had come to KIA from Walla Walla College. In her four years at WWC, she had organized a music program and courses of study and in her brief two-year stay at KIA started a similar program. Hobbs, a singer as well as a pianoforte player, was an 1890 Bachelor of Music graduate from a music conservatory in Ottawa, Kansas.3 Other music teachers in the first decade of the 20th century included Loren Lickey, a violinist, and Grace D. Taylor, a singer.
By 1905, the music department claimed a $1,000 inventory of music instruments and at the end of the 1905-1906 school year, five of the college's seven graduates were in music.4
In the 1911-1912 school year a presentation of the Queen Esther Cantata, with a cast of 75, was given to the largest crowd ever to gather in the church. In the following year The Resurrection, another cantata, was performed with soloists and a chorus of fifty.5
Also, in that second decade, an "orchestra" of ten was formed with an instrumentation of three violins, a cello, three guitars, a mandolin, an autoharp, and a mellophone. A concert band of fifteen to twenty performed occasionally for assemblies and presented concerts outside for free, or in the chapel for a charge of 10c for admission.6
The choirs and glee clubs were popular groups on the campus and in the community. Their presentations of cantatas, given almost every year, were important events and always well received.
In that second decade, Ethel F. Knight, later Casey, taught piano; Ruth Harvey, a graduate of Union College, began a successful tenure as a nominal head of the music area in 1915; and Miss Brent Zachary, a student, taught violin.
In 1916, the school was renamed Southwestern Junior College. In the remaining years of the decade, a building campaign led to a number of changes and additions to the campus, including construction of a house called "a conservatory of music." This two-story wood structure had studios, six practice rooms, and a large classroom and by the beginning of the 1920s was equipped with seven pianos and two organs.7 Practice rooms opened a little after five in the morning and closed a few minutes before dormitory lights were turned out in the evening.8
As on other Adventist school campuses, marching was a popular entertainment for students. This activity was usually done inside, but was also done outside buildings where students provided music on pianos from inside through opened windows, or by drummers who marched with the groups, providing the unifying foot-lifting rhythms.
On at least one occasion in the 1918 school year, the Saturday evening program, hosted by the president and his wife, featured the playing on a victrola of The Stars and Stripes Forever, The Lost Chord, and other favorite records of the time.9
In 1920, Katherine Sierkie Hanhardt, who had been teaching at Union College, began teaching voice and directing the choirs at SJC. Born in Prussia, she had become an Adventist while a student at the prestigious Sorbonne in Paris and had subsequently completed a music degree at a conservatory of music in Germany. In 1909 she had been asked by the General Conference to teach voice at Pacific Union College, formerly Healdsburg College, which was starting its first year in Angwin, California.
Following a move to UC to teach music in 1912, she met and married Wesley Hanhardt, an Adventist minister located in Kansas. When he transferred to Texas and they settled near SWJC, she joined the staff at the college. In the next five years Hanhardt, who became known as the "sweet singer of SWJC,"10 taught on campus and assisted in her husband's evangelistic efforts in the summers, leaving the area when he became Home Missions director and they moved to San Antonio.11
During Hanhardt's years and into the 1930s, a band of around 18 to 20 members, known at different times as the Keene Concert Band and the Bandoliers, flourished under the leadership of Walter Straw and Julian L. Thompson, teachers in other areas who also played cornet; Claude Dortch; and others. These popular ensembles were mostly brass groups with a bass and snare drummer.12
In what must have been a traumatic blow to the music department at the beginning of the 1923-1924 school year, the Keene Furniture Factory appropriated the first floor of a three-story building that was serving as temporary quarters for music. When a fire had destroyed the primary college building in 1921, the 1916 music building had been appropriated for other uses until a new college building, Penuel Hall, was completed. The musicians, including Madge Gould, vocalist, and Harold B. Hannum, pianist, were relegated to the two upper floors.
Hannum, a gifted performer who in his lifetime would become one of the church's most influential organists and musicians, left at the end of that year to teach at Washington Missionary College, now Columbia Union College.13 His successor, Doris Holt, later Haussler, benefited from a campaign by the students during her first year that replaced the dilapidated piano in the chapel with a new grand piano.14
Clarence W. Dortch, a choir director and pianist, became head of the music department in 1926. An experienced teacher, he had taught in two academies and, most recently, at Pacific Union College for six years. For the next sixteen years he directed the choirs and chaired the department, a record tenure in music chairmanship that still stands.
Dortch stabilized and expanded the choral program to include glee clubs for both men and women. In 1930, he started an a cappella choir which when it performed in a radio broadcast in March 1932, brought a flood of letters from more than 15 states.
He sought not only to perform the best in choral music, but to expose the students to a wide variety of musical experiences. In March 1928, a number of students traveled to Dallas to hear famed pianist Ignace Paderewski present an all-Chopin program.
Since access to that type of musical experience was limited, Dortch would often take his Orthophonic Victrola and records to chapel and play one or two selections by noted performers. On at least one occasion, he provided music in this way for an entire chapel period.
By the fall of 1928, the music program was providing lessons to 28 voice, 47 piano, and 5 violin students, the latter being taught by Zachary, who had graduated, and the dean of men, Elihu Ryden. Both would serve in the late 1920s as directors of an orchestra of about thirty members. During this time college choral groups had large numbers of participants and performed often.15
And, as always on college campuses through the years, there were other unofficial student music activities. A cappella gospel-singing male quartets were popular in this region and on the campus all through the 1920s.
One of these quartets, The Lone Star Four, formed in 1928 at the college. This group, chosen eight years later by H.M.S. Richards to assist in his pioneering radio evangelism broadcast, The Voice of Prophecy, became the nucleus for the program's famous King's Heralds quartet. The success of that SWJC quartet was a source of pride to the campus and, through the professional broadcast quartet they spawned, an inspiration for quartets on Adventist school campuses for the next half-century.16
Yet another student group that captured the fancy of the students and probably aroused concern within the faculty was a "Roaring Twenties" style ensemble, The Silver Shadows. In a classic photograph from the turn of the decade seven men in tuxedos, with two violins and a trumpet, clarinet, saxophone, and singing megaphone, are grouped admiringly around a seated young lady with a banjo held in playing position.17
While the 1928-1929 school year was a banner year for enrollment as well as for music activity, the crash in the stock market in October 1929 led to a decline in enrollment and increasing debt in the 1930s. In January 1933, the college faculty and staff voted unanimously to work for a subsistence wage, regardless of training, experience, or position.
Although the 1930s were difficult, the school enthusiastically celebrated its 40th anniversary. The school song, Our College, was introduced during a gathering of alumni and the school family that year and, for several years following its debut, was played at every band concert.
By the fall of 1935, enrollment was just 222 students, significantly down from the enrollment seven years earlier, and there were only 13 teachers and administrators. However, the situation began improving and a turnaround had started at the school by the end of the 1930s.18
Evidence of the improving situation was the school's acquisition of a Hammond Electric Organ, in March 1939. Its purchase was the result of persistent efforts on the part of many in a campaign that had spanned those difficult years.19
The entry of the United States into World War II in December 1941 had a sobering affect on the school when during the rest of that school year its young men registered for the draft and began leaving to serve in the armed forces. The school year ended with yet another loss, when Dortch decided to accept an offer to teach at Southern Junior College, now Southern Adventist University.
For over a decade and a half, he had been an inspiration to many students. Marvin Robertson, who later studied under him at Walla Walla College and would eventually serve as dean of the school of music at Southern Adventist University for over 30 years, later observed,
Clarence Dortch was one of the most influential people in my life. What he was as a man came through in performance. He had been a red head when younger and noted for his terrible temper. He determined that this was not the way to behave as a Christian in rehearsals. As a result, he was kinder than he should have been at times. He often remarked he would rather err on the side of leniency than upset his God. I never saw him during [my] four years in all his groups lose his temper. He was not always happy with us but he was always a Christian gentleman.20
The war years were difficult on campus, with concerns about students who were fighting in the conflict and unsettling news at times from the frontlines, lower than usual enrollments, and restrictions on travel and food. The ratio of men to women dropped dramatically during these years, the school paper describing the predicament as a "dearth of older boys."21
In spite of financial difficulties and shortages of materials, however, the college found money in the summer of 1943 to refurbish some buildings on the campus and, at the beginning of the school year, began planning for the construction of a new auditorium. These plans were set aside, however, when a disastrous fire on January 2, 1944, totally destroyed the men's dormitory and tragically claimed the lives of two students. It was a devastating blow to the school.
The men were temporarily housed in the music building and in an apartment building on campus. Plans for building a new dormitory were immediately announced and by late summer 1945, when the war was ending, it was ready for occupancy.
By the end of the 1945-46 school year, a new gymnasium/auditorium was under construction, but more importantly, the college was fully accredited as a junior college. Thirteen students graduated at commencement that spring with two-year degrees.22
Because of the situation nationally and on campus during the war years, music played an important role in maintaining morale. Sacred music in church and chapels had more than the usual meaning, while patriotic music and concerts were particularly popular.
Dortch had been followed by Joseph Metzger, a bass singer and violinist, who had most recently been teaching at Emmanuel Missionary College, now Andrews University. He served as chair until the end of the war in 1945, directing the women's chorus, a small orchestra, and a church choir of about fifty.
In Dortch's time at the school he had been assisted in the piano area by Florence Ryden, Helen Mills, and J. Mabel Wood. Wood became the piano and organ teacher for the duration of the war, with Violet Rugg assisting her in the final year of the conflict.
The postwar years started with a dramatic turnover in music teachers. When students returned in the fall of 1945, Colin and Ruth Fisher had been hired, he to lead the department and conduct the orchestra, and she to teach voice and direct the choirs on a part-time basis. Rugg, the only holdover from the war years, assisted by teaching voice, and Helen Putnam taught piano. A year later, H. Allen Craw, a war veteran who had just completed a music degree at Emmanuel Missionary College, now Andrews University, was hired to teach piano. The Fishers and Craw worked together for the next four years.
A year after Craw was hired, Betty Christensen joined the faculty to assist in piano and teach theory. She later recalled the good spirit that existed in the department during her five years at SWJC, even though the house that had served as the music building for over 30 years was terribly inadequate.
While other Adventist colleges had significant jumps in enrollment with the return of war veterans, the increase was more measured at SWJC due to its junior college status. Even so, the return of the men was immediately evident in all the ensembles and, by the beginning of the 1950s enrollment had risen to about 400.
Herbert A. Work, a talented clarinetist and saxophonist, led the band from 1949 to 1953. The band under his leadership doubled in size to 45 members. Others associated with the program at that time included Harold Doering, an organist, for three years, Laura Winn, who assisted as an adjunct teacher in piano and elementary school music, and Edna Patzer, a pianist.
Merritt Schumann conducted the choirs from 1950 to 1953. It was during his leadership that the a cappella choir was named the Mizpah Choraliers.
In 1953, Wilbur Schram, a versatile musician who had been the chair of the Union College music department for the past four years, and his wife, Vivian, an art teacher, were invited to teach at SWJC. For the next fourteen years, he served as organist and chair of the fine arts department. He also led the band for fifteen years and in his first year on campus led a successful campaign to raise money for band uniforms.
Robert and June McManaman also joined the faculty in 1953, he to teach voice and direct the choirs, and she to teach piano. Both were talented, attractive and enthusiastic young teachers who were popular with the students. In addition to the usual choral groups that year, there were three male quartets, four ladies' trios, a triple ladies' trio, and a Medical Cadet Chorus.
A new women's dormitory had been completed and the old dormitory designated as the new home for music, art, and speech just as the Schrams and McManamans arrived.23 They set about to transform the building into a functional facility, one that would serve as home for music for the next three decades.
The completion of Evans Hall, a new classroom building that included an auditorium, and the construction of a new church in the late 1950s also provided vastly improved venues for music programs. Yet another important improvement was the placement of a new Steinway piano in Evans Hall Auditorium in 1959.
The numerous activities of the smaller vocal ensembles, coupled with large numbers of students in the choirs; the newly attired band; the new home for the music department, along with these improved places for performance, created tangible excitement in the department and an upbeat feeling on campus during that decade.
The work of Craw, Christensen, and Doering in the postwar era laid the foundation for building a strong keyboard area. Their work was continued through the 1950s and into the 1960s with the teaching of Schram, June McManaman, Anne Lambert, Shirley Beary, and Vinson Bushnell. Clarence Dortch, who had retired and settled in the area, returned to teach organ and piano for two years from 1956 to 1958.
Beary joined the music faculty in 1959 to teach piano and music theory, an appointment that would continue until 1984, the longest tenure of any music teacher at SWAU since its founding. A piano and theory teacher with a personality described as affirming, friendly, and supportive, Beary provided a thread of continuity during a quarter-century of changes in the department.
The tradition in choral excellence established during the long tenure of Dortch in the 1920s and 1930s continued through the 1950s and into the opening years of the 1960s under the leadership of McManaman and his successors, Harold Lickey, a former member of the Faith for Today quartet, and Paul Hill. All three men were dynamic leaders with definite convictions about sacred choral music who wielded considerable influence while at the college and in later positions.
Yet another extended tenure in choral leadership started in 1962, when John Read became director of the choral groups. Like his predecessors, Read was interested in promoting good music and upholding high standards in performance. Changes in the college's status and student body during his years would facilitate an even higher performance level for the choirs.
Beginning in his first year, the school took steps to become an accredited four-year college. In October 1962, the board approved the name change to Southwestern College and, in March 1963, the new name and plans for an expanded program became official at the Southwestern Union Conference constituency meeting.
The General Conference endorsed the college's standing as a senior college in 1966 and, four years later, in December 1970, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools granted full accreditation. By the end of the 1970s, the school had been renamed Southwestern Adventist College and the campus totally transformed by an extensive building program.
Read and his wife, Aquila, also a musician who taught voice and music appreciation, were witnesses to and participants in changes that transformed the school from a small institution with equal numbers of academy and college students to one with an enrollment of over 700 college-age students in 1980. This shift in the size and age of the student body created a larger, more-mature group of students.
Read, who completed a doctorate at the University of North Texas in 1968, directed the choirs until 1980 and also chaired the department from 1967 until 1975. For several years, his students participated in the National Association of Teachers of Singing (NATS) auditions. In his last year at SWAU, two of his students were semi-finalists and one was a finalist in regional auditions.
While chair, Read presided over the introduction and development of a rigorous music education degree program patterned after the one at UNT, installation of a twelve-rank two-manual Casavant organ in Evans Hall, and an expansion of the music faculty to four full-time teachers.
The introduction of the music education degree had led to the increase in music faculty, all with doctorates, and the creation of a highly qualified adjunct faculty that varied in size, depending on program needs. The core faculty of four equaled the size of the full-time music faculty in the early 1950s, the largest number of full-time music faculty on record.
When Schram had retired in 1968, Jack McClarty was hired to direct the band and instrumental program and teach music education classes. Within two years, McClarty, an experienced teacher with a dynamic personality who had just completed a doctorate at the University of Montana, was presiding over a band program with two groups. The concert band of 65, largest band ever at the college, and a select group of 30 called The Collegians, chosen from the larger group, were popular ensembles that performed often.
When McClarty left in 1972 for a position at Southern Missionary College, now Southern Adventist University, Read, a former band director, conducted the group for a year, in addition to directing the choirs and chairing the department. Garland Peterson, nearby academy band director, then led the band for two years.
Richard White was hired to direct the ensemble and chair the department in 1975, an arrangement that continued until his departure in 1978. After two years of interim band leadership by William Baker while Bromme served as department chair, Donald Haddad, a nationally known composer, was hired to direct the band and chair the department.
Read left in 1980, two years after White's departure. His successor, Randel Wagner, was a graduate of Walla Walla College who had completed a master's degree at San Diego State University. An earlier national finalist in the NATS Singer of the Year Competition, Wagner was an accomplished singer and conductor who inspired the students.
While there had been orchestras from the earliest days of the college, for the most part they were ad hoc ensembles formed when players were available, and as needed for presenting cantatas and annual performances of the Messiah. This practice changed when Mugur Doroftei moved to the area in 1981.
Doroftei, a talented violinist who had been a concertmaster and an important player in several Romanian orchestras, had emigrated to the U.S. in 1980. An accomplished composer and arranger and the author of several music theory books, he established the Keene Camerata, a string orchestra providing an opportunity for string players in the college and community that continues to the present. Although not a full-time teacher, he is listed as an artist in residence and adjunct teacher in violin and piano.
During the 1970s the music program flourished, having as many as 23 music education majors. Near the end of that decade, however, the number of music majors dropped dramatically, when the need for academy music teachers decreased because of cutbacks in Adventist school music programs nationwide. Also, a decline in Adventist college and university enrollments and a corresponding loss of income led to program cuts in Adventist higher education across the country.
As the 1980s began, the financial situation became severe at Southwestern, and the administration began to reduce faculty. Because the music major count had dropped to less than ten, college administrators decided in the 1983-84 school year to decrease the size of the music department and released a tenured faculty member. This move led to controversy, and, subsequently, an announcement that music would now become a service program, offering only ensembles, lessons, and a music minor. This was devastating news and at the end of that academic year there was a complete turnover in music teachers when Bromme, Beary, and Wagner left.
Larry Otto, who had directed choirs in two academies and at Columbia Union and Southern Adventist colleges, became choir director and chair of the fine arts department that summer, the only full-time teacher in music. Ann Robinson, a former student of Bromme, was hired to be artist in residence and piano and organ instructor on an adjunct basis, and Ron Johnson directed the college band.
A year later, Robert Anderson, band director at nearby Chisholm Trail Academy, consented to direct the band at SWAC also. Four years later, in 1988, he became a full-time faculty member at the college and, from 1991 to 1998, served as chair of the department.
In Otto's first year, a new Fine Arts building that had been in the planning stages was constructed. The 1.3 million-dollar structure, named for its principal donors, John and Lottie Mabee, houses both English and music. It includes two rehearsal areas, seven practice rooms, seven teaching studios, and offices. The recital hall, named for Roy and Grace Wharton, has seating for 180 and includes a grand piano and a three-manual Johannus electronic organ.
The facility also includes four more grand and eight upright pianos. The organ and all of the pianos except two of the grand pianos were purchased through Ogden Music in Portland, Oregon, in 1987. The Ogdens' support in acquisition of these keyboard instruments was honored through the establishment of an annual Ogden Hour, a music program that continued for several years.
In his role as department chair, Otto attempted to make the best of the change in status for the department by starting a Ministry of Music program in his second year, a religion degree with special courses in music. Another initiative was the launching of a two-year recording studio program to prepare students for a career in that area. Even though a $40,000 Josephine J. Roberts Recording Studio was established in Mabee Center to facilitate the program, it, as well as the ministry of music offering failed to attract enough students and ended when Otto left in 1991 to work for Ogden Music.
While serving as chair, Otto was able to restart a college sponsored music festival for the academies that had been stopped in 1984. Another move by Otto during this time that proved controversial, however, was selling the Evans Hall Auditorium Casavant pipe organ and replacing it with a Johannus electronic organ.
In his time at SWAC, Otto was able to provide a choral program that attracted a large number of students. He performed several significant choral works and presented programs that were well received on campus and in the community.
David Anavitarte, a choir director and pianist who had previously taught at Adelphian and San Diego academies, succeeded Otto. In addition to his primary identity as a conductor, he is also a singer who accompanies himself on piano in an improvisational style.
Anavitarte is a dynamic and charismatic person who inspires his students. In his seventeenth year as choir director, he has developed a choral program that presents an eclectic mix of both serious traditional and contemporary sacred choral music.
A graduate of Columbia Union College, Anavitarte completed a master's in choral conducting at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Since coming to the SWAU, he has completed all class work for a doctorate in music at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.
In March 1993, Anderson, in his role as chair, led out with his colleagues, Anavitarte and Doroftei, in launching the school's year-long centennial celebration with a gala concert at the prestigious Morton Meyerson Symphony Center in nearby Dallas. The program, which featured the College Band, Mizpah Choraliers, and Keene Camerata, was a memorable and festive evening for the capacity audience and the nearly 150 students in the groups.
The success of that program led to use of the center on a biannual basis for the academy music festival, beginning in 1995. The beauty of the auditorium, along with its large stage and acoustics, have made it an impressive setting for this event, which has involved as many as 500 university and academy students. It became an annual event at Myerson two years ago.
In 1997, Anavitarte formed the University Singers, a select group of 20 to 30 singers, and Asaph, a male chorus of 16, to complement the larger 100-member traditional choir, Mizpah Choraliers. In both of the mixed choirs he has presented masterpieces in choral literature such as the Elijah, the Mozart and Rutter Requiems, and other choral masterpieces.
He also formed the Brazos Chamber Orchestra in 1997, an independent professional ensemble of 45 to 50 that, in addition to accompanying the choirs in giving major choral works, gives concerts featuring a wide variety of music, from symphonic literature to Broadway musicals.
One of the school's first acts in 1994, the opening year of its second century, was to rename itself Southwestern Adventist University. Within the first decade of claiming its new identity, a four-year music degree program was reinstated at the president's request.
Anderson and Anavitarte in their eight years together worked to make that a meaningful program. When Anderson left in 1998, John Boyd, an experienced teacher who had recently completed a doctorate at the University of Northern Colorado in theory and composition, became department chair and band director.
Three years later, administration reduced the music faculty to one full-time faculty member, retaining Anavitarte as chair and hiring Boyd, who had accepted a position as minister of music for the college church, on a part-time basis to teach selected classes. The band continued under the leadership of several adjunct directors through the next six years.
In the spring of 2005, the department's music degree program was cut again. That decision was reversed a year later by a new president, Eric Anderson, who wanted to develop a music program suitable for a school with university status. Boyd was rehired on a full-time basis to teach theory in 2006, and a search was initiated for a third faculty member who could reinvigorate the band program, which had suffered because of the constant change in directors.
Rudyard Dennis, an accomplished clarinetist and experienced band director with a doctorate from the University of Washington, was hired as a full-time faculty member this year. Most recently at Union College, Dennis is excited about the potential for the band as he begins his tenure at SWAU.
Despite the uncertainty in the music department at times in the last two decades, the present university administration and music chair Anavitarte and his colleagues are determined to develop a comprehensive music education program with depth at SWAU and, as soon as feasible, will be applying for accreditation with the National Association of Schools of Music.
Collectively, the music faculty has considerable experience at all levels of music teaching and want their program to be a serious option for students across the country who are considering music teaching as a career. They are optimistic about achieving these goals, based on the support they believe exists for music on campus and the growth in music majors that is now occurring as the program expands.
1The Chronicle of Southwestern Adventist College, a collection of articles, news clips, statistics, and photographs arranged by year, Mary Ann Hadley, Editor, 1994, 2-15. This was an important source for this overview, hereafter noted as The Chronicle. The quoted phrase at the end of this section is on page 14 of the CSAC and is from an article in The Hub, 3 January 29.
2The Chronicle, 28, 1901 Graduation program.
3Dan Shultz, A Great Tradition, Music at Walla Walla College, 1892-1992, 16.
4The Chronicle, 38,39.
6Ibid, photographs on page 55, 57, copy on 63.
8Mizpah, Southwestern Junior College yearbook, 1921, "Our Musical College."
9The Chronicle, 64.
11IAMA website, www.iamaonline.com, biography.
12Based on numerous band photographs in The Chronicle and Mizpah. Straw and Thompson would become noted in the church for their work in leadership and science, respectively, in later years.
13The Chronicle, 74; IAMA website biographies for Hannum and Gould.
15IAMA website biography for Dortch; The Chronicle, 82, 83, 85, 90.
16IAMA Notes, "Lift Up the Trumpet . . ., Music at the Voice of Prophecy," Winter/Spring 2005.
17The Chronicle, photograph on 87.
18The Chronicle, 84, 85, 94, 95, 98, 99-107.
20Shultz, 114, from an interview with Robertson, 19 November 1990 and letter, 17 June 1991.
21The Chronicle, 112.
22Events in the last three paragraphs based on information found in The Chronicle, 114-118.
23The move to the old dormitory was actually a return to a building, expanded by an addition in the interim, that had been temporarily used for music in the 1920s, following the fire that had destroyed the College Building in 1921. Sometime later, music returned to the 1916 Music Building, a small two-story building, where it stayed until this move.
The overview from the mid-1940s on is based on material in The Chronicle, conversations/interviews with persons, and additional sources listed below.
Larry Otto, 1984-1991; Marvin Robertson, 19 November 1990; Betty Christiansen, 23 September 2007; John Read, 24 September 2007; William Bromme, Aquila Reed, and Shirley White, 25 September 2007; William A. Baker, September 2007; David Anavitarte and John Boyd, 27 September 2007; Rudyard Dennis and Stephanie Beary Johnson, 1 October 2007.
Mizpah, Southwestern yearbooks, 1921-87; Southwestern Spirit Alumni Magazine, Fall 2001; IAMA website biographies prepared by the author in consultation with the person, his/her family and/or other sources.
A Special Thank-you to Diem Dennis, archive librarian at SWAU and the interviewees listed above.
Copyrighted by IAMA and Dan Shultz