Music at Pacific Union College
An Historical Overview
Pacific Union College, the second oldest Adventist College, began as Healdsburg Academy in 1882, fourteen years after the church was organized in California. It was housed in a fifteen-year-old two-story building that would serve as its home for the next 25 years. By the turn of the century the college was in financial trouble and, in 1907, the building was sold to help pay the schoolís debts. In the spring of 1908, following a year of classes in makeshift settings, the college closed. A year later, the school reopened at a more rural site, a former resort in Angwin. Known in its first year as Pacific College, it was renamed Pacific Union College as the next school year began, a name that had actually been adopted in 1906, before the move.
The first flyer announcing the opening of Healdsburg Academy, forerunner of todayís Pacific Union College, listed instrumental music as an option, for a fee that included use of an instrument. It was not until the end of the first year, however, that the first lessons in piano and organ were given, when Edith Donaldson was hired to teach both music and English.
Instruction in vocal music was also listed in that first announcement, to be provided without charge. Study in voice was required for all students in the early years, accomplished in sessions where students were taught how to breathe, place the voice, and sing and speak with proper diction.1
Shortly after its opening, the school was renamed Healdsburg College, partly in deference to the communityís wish to be the home of one of the twelve colleges and universities in the state. In reality, at first most of the students and offerings were at the elementary and secondary level.2
Music teachers in the Healdsburg years were mostly persons proficient in keyboard or voice. Though the service of most was often brief, voice and theory teacher Henry Courter, keyboard instructor George B. Miller, voice teacher John Beardslee, and orchestra director William Wallace had significant terms of service.
Healdsburg students had quickly gained a reputation for their singing. Courter, a mathematician and singer, was troubled, however, by their ignorance of music theory. Brilliant and demanding, yet cheerfully persistent as a teacher, he invented a mathematically based teaching device called the Abacus Harmonicus to teach sight-reading and the singing of intervals. Using this aid and his innate ability to give clarity to complex concepts, Courter went over each lesson with varied explanations until it was clear to every student.3
Miller, an organist, came to Healdsburg as a student, following study at Battle Creek College. He impressed the faculty with his talent and enthusiasm and, in 1899, was placed in charge of music. Miller and the president were intent on creating a program that would attract more male students. Consequently, when the voice teacher, a woman, left in 1902, they chose John Beardslee to replace her.4 He would teach voice and also lead the department until 1906.
William Wallace, a violinist, was hired the same year as Beardslee to start an orchestra. Wallace succeeded and the orchestra, a group of twenty, with thirteen string players, became the first instrumental ensemble at the school. Wallace led the group until the college closed in 1908.5
The orchestra, small groups of select singers known as choral clubs, and detailed programs of study in voice and keyboard created a flourishing music department with four teachers. Even so, because of the collegeís increasing financial problems, music was placed on a self-supporting basis in 1905, three years before the school closed.6
The college reopened in 1909 in an isolated location at the top of Howell Mountain in Angwin. Even though the enthusiasm for music continued at the new school, the early years at the new location were austere, with few college students and little money to support a music program. Even so, Katherine Sierkie, a singer who had studied at the Sorbonne University of Paris, was asked by the General Conference to teach voice, a position she held until 1912, when she left to teach at Union College. 7
Though music was an important part of campus life and there were lessons and some activity by an orchestra and choral clubs, it was not a structured program. Three years after the move, Charles Irwin, president of the college and a singer and clarinetist who sang and performed in the orchestra, invited George Miller to come and organize a program.
During the next three years Miller taught organ and music theory, established three- and five-year courses in voice and keyboard, and led the orchestra until a qualified director could be found.8
The year he arrived, the first pipe organ, a Murray M. Harris, was installed in the chapel of a newly constructed administration building. Miller, who had some experience in organ building and had in the last year been working in Los Angeles, likely facilitated its purchase and installation.9
A small seven-stop organ originally built for a church in Van Nuys, it was at first installed at the rear of the room. Five years later when the chapel was renovated and enlarged, it was moved to the front where it became an impressive focal point.10
The search for someone who could direct the orchestra and establish a music department led them to consider Noah Paulin, who was the same age as Miller and running a music studio in Santa Barbara. A delegation from the college traveled to his studio to observe his work. Impressed with him, the way he related to his students, and the fact that he had organized and was conducting an orchestra, they invited him to come to PUC and develop a music department. He accepted the offer, even though it meant a reduction in income.
A talented violinist and recent convert to Adventism, Paulin had started formal music study at Findlay College in Ohio. Following two years there, where he obtained a teaching certificate, he traveled across the country conducting an orchestra in a group called the Henry Minstrels. In time he settled in Santa Barbara, continued music study at the state teachersí college there, and established a studio.
When he arrived on campus in the fall of 1914, he brought his instrument, some music, a few personal belongings, and a love for his newfound church. His residence became the music building until he married three years later.
Over the next 30 years Paulin would emerge as the central figure in music at PUC. Though at first he was assigned janitorial duties on campus and, subsequently, gardening duties, an expectation for all teachers in those early years, within a decade he was able to devote his time fully to music. He established an active and respected program, giving unstintingly of his time in teaching classes and lessons on a variety of instruments, conducting the orchestra and band, and performing frequently.11
An often stated view in Paulinís early years, that he was the department, was fed in part by the fact that changes in the music faculty were occurring on the average of about one a year. In spite of the turnover, music prospered and by 1918 the department was on equal footing with other areas of instruction.12
Elsie Taylor, a pianist and singer, was the first musician besides Paulin to teach for an extended length of time. She began in 1917 and taught mostly piano and music history classes for the next eleven years. Since there wasnít a music building, she, like other music teachers, gave the lessons in her home.
Gilmour McDonald, teacher in piano after Taylor left, had taught piano while studying at PUC. Listed as a full-time teacher beginning in 1929, he and his wife, Marjorie, who began teaching piano the following year, taught until 1939.13
Clarence Dortch was the first voice teacher and choir director to teach for a length of time. When he completed the secondary part of the PUC program in 1915, he was hired to teach piano part-time while he continued music study at the college. In 1917, he left to teach at Lodi Academy. A year later he served in World War I and then taught at Gem State Academy in Idaho, returning to PUC in 1920 to teach voice and direct the choir. He led both menís and womenís glee clubs, popular college groups in that era, as an adjunct to the choir, and started the first oratorio chorus.
In 1926, when Dortch left to lead the music department at Southwestern Junior College (now Southwestern Adventist University), George W. Greer, who had left PUC five years earlier after studying music and was running an outstanding program at Lodi Academy, was chosen to direct the choirs. A year later, he presented the collegeís first performance of the Messiah with the oratorio chorus and organized an a cappella choir.
The choir, with its refined and musical singing, eventually achieved a level of performance that established it as the departmentís premiere performing ensemble. In the next decade both Greer and the choral program gained legendary status as they performed frequently on campus, toured widely in a bus purchased specifically for their use, and performed on radio broadcasts in the state.
Despite the fact that Greer did not have a degree, he was awarded a professorship because of his achievements with the choir. Many were disappointed when he left to accept a position at Washington Missionary College (now Columbia Union College) in 1937. The McDonalds followed him two years later.14
Ivalyn Law Biloff, a protégé of Greerís, assumed leadership of the choir. Even though following an unusually popular director, she was equal to the challenge and directed the choirs for the next eight years.
As the 1930ís had started, PUCís enrollment was nearing 400. Growth in music activity was creating problems since music lessons and instruction were still being given in faculty homes and the administration building, and student practice rooms were scattered across campus and on the ground floor of West Hall, an old dormitory. The situation was disruptive for the department and others on campus who were surrounded by the ever-present sounds of developing musicians.
In 1932, an attractive music building was constructed and named, by student vote, for Paulin. For the first time, the music department had a home with three studios, thirteen practice rooms and a large room that doubled as a classroom, rehearsal area, and recital hall. It was a place where music faculty and students could work in close proximity.
The only exceptions were larger ensembles that rehearsed in the administration building, which had been named Irwin Hall, and lessons and practice on the chapel organ. Just three years earlier, the instrument had been expanded to three manuals and 27 stops, with decidedly mixed results, and an echo organ had been installed in the back balcony.15
Although there had been ad hoc bands for several years, the beginnings of an ongoing concert band came about through the efforts of two students who in the spring of 1937 organized a uniformed group. Within two years, the band under Paulinís leadership grew from 26 to 45 and became very popular on campus. In those years, band concerts always started with Band Theme Song, a work composed by Paulin, who led the group until 1945, a year beyond his retirement. PUC alumni later adopted the theme song as their hymn.
While the college had been granting diplomas and certificates in music since 1913 and had awarded the first bachelorís degree in music in 1920, the first accredited degree was not awarded until after the college was accredited in 1933. By the end of the decade, four accredited music degrees had been awarded and the collegeís enrollment of 650 students was double what it had been a decade earlier. PUC was the largest Adventist college in 1938.
The schoolís enrollment remained fairly constant through the opening years of the 1940ís. However, a raging global conflict and the departure of male students leaving to fight in it led to the lowest enrollment since 1938 in the fall of 1944. Annual performances of the Messiah, which had been a Christmas tradition since 1927, continued, however, and ensembles played frequently, giving a boost to morale during that difficult time.
Even though there were many changes in music personnel as the department entered the 1940ís, Paulin and Biloff provided continuity. However, with the retirement of Paulin, in 1944, a passage noted by that yearís yearbook, which was dedicated to him, an uncertain transition began which would continue for the next two years.
Sterling Gernet, an accomplished pianist, was appointed chair in the fall of 1946. The first person with a doctorate in music to teach at the college, he immediately began working with his six colleagues, all of whom had at least one degree, to revise and create a more rigorous program.16
These were needed changes, coming in the postwar years, when expectations for music in Adventist higher education were expanding beyond the worship, entertainment, and recruitment mindset that had characterized the systemís music programs from the beginning.
Their work and that of others on campus helped lead to certification of the music education and other PUC education programs in 1951.17 It also laid the foundation for what would become a substantial music program, one suitable for a school whose enrollment in 1950-51, the final year of Gernetís leadership, had doubled to over a thousand since the end of the war.
J. Wesley Rhodes had assumed direction of the choral program in 1944, at the beginning of Paulinís final year. His leadership of the choirs was a stabilizing factor as the transition from the Paulin era occurred, new music teachers were hired, and the department redefined itself. The excellence of his choral work was continued, following his retirement in 1951, with the appointment of Gerald Ferguson, who taught for five years.
George Greer returned to direct the choirs when Ferguson left. Since his departure 19 years earlier, he had taught at three other Adventist colleges, and was acclaimed for his work at Washington Missionary College and his legendary choir tours during nine years at Avondale College in Australia. He retired four years later, in 1960, as an emeritus professor, honored for his 15 years of choral leadership at PUC.18
Since the late 1930ís, assistants in the choral program had helped with voice instruction and choirs in the college preparatory programs. Gladys Manchester Walin was one of the first to serve, providing support for Biloff and Rhodes. Violet Rugg would begin in 1954 and assist for 15 years, working with five directors.
John J. Hafner had assumed direction of the band and orchestra in 1947, at the beginning of Gernetís second year as chair. A violinist and conductor with a flair for showmanship, he provided memorable leadership for both groups until 1955, when he left to teach at Walla Walla College.
Hafner also served as chair of the department in his last four years. He held the first music festival hosted by PUC for secondary schools the year he left. A one-day event, it featured seven academy bands that performed separately throughout the day and as a massed group that evening.19
Under his leadership, Ivylyn Traver, also a violinist, was hired to teach strings, which she would do for the next 30 years. Gilmour and Marjorie McDonald returned to teach piano the year Hafner left. Although he was hired to chair the department, they left after one year.
C. Warren Becker, an organist, had also been hired in those formative years after World War II. He brought stability to that area of music during his fourteen years of teaching and playing for church services. It was his first teaching position and the beginning of a distinguished career. While at PUC, he completed a masterís degree at the Eastman School of Music, and, in his last three years, served as chair, after the McDonalds left.20
In his first year as chair, Becker hired Yvonne Caro Howard, a pianist who would teach at PUC for the next fifteen years. In subsequent years, Lois Stauffer, Aileen James, Helen Harper, Melva Wright Cummings, and Lois Case would all provide lengthy terms of service as assistants in piano.
George Wargo assumed leadership of the department and the string program in 1959, when Becker left to teach at Emmanuel Missionary College (now Andrews University). He and his wife, Audrey, a pianist, would teach until his retirement fourteen years later. An accomplished viola performer and former member of the National Symphony, he had taught at Peabody Conservatory of Music and the University of Virginia and chaired the music department at Washington Missionary College for thirteen years.21
In his ten years as chair at PUC, Wargo was the driving force for constructing a new music facility and led out in establishing a graduate program in music. Under him, the full-time music faculty increased to twelve. It was a stellar group, several of whom would spend most of their careers at PUC.
From its first use, Paulin Hall had proven to be inadequate. By the 1960ís, growth at the college and in music had led to the departmentís once again being scattered across campus. Wargo, from his arrival, lobbied for a larger, more adequate facility, a need that had been recognized by the college before his arrival. The building was completed and occupied by the department in 1967.
An architecturally striking building, it includes a 468-seat auditorium with 48-rank pipe organ; fourteen teaching studios, one with a 15-rank tracker organ; offices and libraries; two rehearsal rooms; and 28 practice rooms, including one with a small tracker organ. Other keyboard instruments include four harpsichords and 25 grand and 22 upright pianos. The new music facility, like the first, was named for Paulin, who, two years later, was also awarded the schoolís first honorary doctorate.
The graduate program in music started in 1964 as a response to the need for large numbers of West Coast Adventist music teachers to earn masterís degrees for certification. It was primarily an education degree with an emphasis in music.
While some in the music faculty felt that the department, with its large faculty and planned new facility, could provide a meaningful graduate study experience in music, others were uneasy with the degree. They believed students would be better served by doing graduate work at schools with larger programs. The first masterís degree was awarded in 1965.
Harold Lickey was the first of several choral directors to be hired during Wargoís tenure. A gifted singer and talented and demanding conductor who had previously taught at two colleges, Lickey formed a select choir known as Schola Cantorum and challenged its members with both contemporary and traditional choral works.
Lyle Jewell succeeded Lickey, in 1965, as director of vocal-choral activities. An accomplished singer and frequent soloist in high profile venues, he was also an experienced conductor who, as he arrived, renamed the select group Pro Musica.
James Mercer was also hired that year to teach at the academy and assist at the college. He became full-time at PUC two years later when Jewel left and taught voice, conducted Pro Musica for a year and then assumed direction of the large choir. Mercer continued to conduct that group and was in charge of music education until he retired nearly three decades later.
Carolyn Rhodes Bisel, daughter of J. Wesley Rhodes, who had directed the choir at PUC 20 years earlier, had came during Jewelís time to assist in the program. Two years after he left, she assumed direction of Pro Musica.
James Kempster assumed direction of the vocal-choral area in 1968 and for the next 32 years directed the choirs, taught voice, and performed frequently as a tenor soloist.
Carlyle Manous was also hired during Wargoís chairmanship to lead the band at the academy, teach brass and assist with the college band, which had been directed for the past four years by Bertil van Boer. A versatile brass performer, Manous started in 1963, following completion of a masterís degree at the University of Michigan. He became college band director in his second year and, in the next decade completed a doctorate at the University of Michigan.
Manous provided enthusiastic leadership, performing the latest in band music. He directed the group for 17 years and performed frequently as a horn soloist. Richard Stumbaugh, Lyle Q. Hamel, and Richard Heyden assisted in the woodwind area during those years.
Morris and Elaine Taylor, gifted pianists and teachers, joined the faculty in 1965, midway through Wargoís tenure as chair. For the next six years their piano artistry and their four childrenís string performances enlivened the campus and region. The childrenís precocious playing as a string quartet stunned audiences and music critics alike.
Lowell Smith was appointed organist in 1960. At the end of his fourth year he took a sabbatical in Europe to study carillon playing, sponsored by a Fulbright Fellowship. Del Case, an organist who had taught for four years at Southern Missionary College (now Southern Adventist University), was hired to teach during Smithís absence and then work with him after his return. The year Smith returned, Case took a yearís study leave. Although he had permission to extend it for a second year, he returned after one year when Smith accepted a position elsewhere.
All of these faculty members were hired during Wargoís tenure as chair. Although he had successfully championed the need for the new facility and carefully nurtured the graduate program, he had run the department with a hands-off approach. Nevertheless, the teachers were highly motivated and the overall result was an extremely productive era for music.
Melvin Hill became chair in 1969. He had earlier directed the band for three years, from 1957 to 1960. In 1959, he had completed a DMA and the following year went to Union College to chair its music program.
The faculty was apprehensive when Hill arrived, knowing his approach would be different from Wargoís. While at UC, he had become known as a chair with definite convictions about how a music department should function. They knew he would be intensely involved in all aspects of its operation.
Hill immediately sought to gain accreditation for the music department with the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM), as he had done at UC. It was a distinction enjoyed by only half of the music schools in the country.
Within a year he realized his goal, a remarkable accomplishment, given the extensive process involved in gaining this standing. That achievement and his commitment to the music program and its faculty earned him their support and loyalty.
When the Taylors left to accept a position at Andrews University in 1971, Lynn Wheeler, an accomplished performer who had been teaching at Columbia Union College, was invited by Hill to teach piano and music history.
He and Leland Tetz, singer and director of Pro Musica from 1971 to 1974, and Aileen James, a pianist, would be the only full-time faculty hired during Hillís leadership. With their addition and the return of Mercer, who had left earlier for graduate study, the number of full-time music faculty crested at thirteen, a record high.
Hill enjoyed working with festival groups and in December of 1973, he and his wife, Jean, an art teacher, traveled to Australia where he was to conduct a festival at Avondale College. While enroute, they tragically perished at sea while on an excursion boat in the Fiji Islands. It was a shocking loss to the department and the campus.
Kempster was appointed chair for the remainder of that year and then chosen to serve a four- year term, beginning in 1974. He assumed leadership of Pro Musica when Tetz left that summer.
Marianne Scriven, his successor, taught voice and directed a small group which she expanded and named I Cantori. In her five years at PUC, she traveled with them to Poland.
During his service as chair, Kempster completed a doctorate at the University of Oregon. He later served as Associate Academic Dean for four years and was honored with the Zapara Excellence in Teaching Award in 1999, two years before he retired. Midway through Kempsterís time as chair, James McGee was hired to teach advanced theory and composition.
By the late 1970ís, the department could look back on nearly two decades of unusual accomplishment. Its large and talented faculty had earned an enviable reputation for musical excellence. During that time college enrollment had soared to over 2,000, and large numbers of music graduates had left to pursue successful careers as teachers and performers.
Even with all of these accomplishments, there were troubling developments at the college. A divisive controversy in the theology department, the controversial demolition of Irwin Hall on the eve of the schoolís centennial, a shrinking group of potential college-age students, and an economy plagued by runaway inflation became factors that led to a decline in enrollment and reductions in faculty campus wide. As the 1980ís began, the full-time music faculty had been reduced to eight.
Manous became chair in 1978, at the end of Kempsterís term. The stress of this added responsibility, combined with leading the band and orchestra and the teaching of classes, led him to resign two years later. During his leadership, the masterís degree was discontinued because of low enrollment and a lack of interest. In its nearly twenty years of existence, only 42 graduate degrees had been awarded.
James McGee completed Manousís term and then served a regular term of four years. Since his arrival at PUC in 1974, he had completed a Ph.D. at the University of Arizona. An active composer, McGee has written numerous works for voice and varied groups and instruments. He retired in 2001 with the rank of emeritus professor.
When Manous left in 1980, Steve Hall was hired as interim band conductor for two years while Kenneth Narducci, talented brass performer and designated successor as band director, pursued graduate study at the University of Oregon. When Narducci assumed leadership of the band in 1982, he named it the Symphonic Wind Ensemble. He has directed the group for 23 years, a record at PUC, and has distinguished himself as a theory teacher.
Narducci completed a doctorate in theory in 1989 and was honored with both the PUC and national Zapara Excellence in Teaching Awards in 1990. He was also named PUC educator of the year in 1995. In 1996, his group was featured at the College Band Directors National Association Conference in Reno, Nevada. Beginning in 2004, he formed and directed the collegeís first jazz band to be offered for credit.
Norman Bernal became conductor of the orchestra when Wargo retired in 1973, a position he held for the next five years. Wargo, Manous, John Fisher and Wargo, again, briefly led the group before LeRoy Peterson was hired in 1983.
Peterson, a gifted violinist who has performed in numerous countries and soloed with leading orchestras, led the group until 2004, when one of his former students, Rachelle Berthelsen Davis, became conductor.
An avid chamber music performer, Peterson has led out in college string quartets throughout his time at PUC. The ensembles play frequently in the area and on tours and have toured in Europe and Asia four times. Beginning in 1984, he also assisted as a soloist in evangelistic outreach in Russia and the Ukraine.
Gennevieve Brown-Kibble was appointed director of choral activities in 1995. In that position she teaches voice, directs Pro Musica, a menís chorus, Kantorei, and a womanís chorus, Bel Canto. She also teaches music education, conducting and music history.
An accomplished singer, she completed a doctorate at the University of Arizona in 2000. Brown-Kibble has traveled extensively with Pro Musica, taking tours that often include attendance at regional and national conventions. Additionally, they have toured internationally, performing in Australia and New Zealand in 1998, and Scandinavia and Russia with Peterson and the string quartet in 2004.
Del Case completed a doctorate in 1972. He and his wife, Lois, a pianist, both appointed during the Wargo years, will have been at PUC for over forty years when they retire this spring, longer than any other music teacher since the beginning of the school. He brought about the installation of the Casavant pipe organ in the Paulin recital hall, a smaller fifteen-stop tracker instrument in the organ studio, and a practice organ.
Case was also largely responsible for the installation of a four-manual tracker action Rieger organ in the college church, selecting the builder, doing the tonal design, and leading out in the fund raising. It is the largest tracker organ in the western United States and one of the finest organs in the Adventist church. Lois teaches piano, harpsichord, and music education and has served as director of the Paulin Center for the Creative Arts, the collegeís preparatory division, since its founding in 1984.
During the 1980ís and 1990ís, further reductions were made in the music faculty, necessitated by a continued decline in school enrollment and escalating operating expenses in the overall college program. At the beginning of a new century, the program is being taught by six full-time and a number of adjunct faculty, a nationwide trend in college and university music staffing.
Even with these changes, the department provides a full schedule of recitals and concerts and hosts several continuing music festivals for academy and high school students. Its ensembles are noted for their excellence and successful touring.
Lynn Wheeler has served as department chair since 1986. He has been an effective leader for 19 years, a record second only to that of Paulin, during what has been a challenging time in staff reductions and realignments.
In the midst of these challenges, Wheeler led the department in gaining membership in Pi Kappa Lambda, the national music honor society, in 1995, a distinction enjoyed by only 200 colleges and universities nationwide. From a perspective tempered by his work in representing NASM in music accreditation reviews at other schools, he speaks positively about the work of his colleagues and the future of music at PUC, with its strong tradition of recognizing the importance of music in life and on the campus.
1Melvin S. Hill, A History of Music Education in Seventh-day Adventist Western Colleges, a dissertation presented by Hill in partial fulfillment of requirements for a Doctor of Musical Arts, University of Southern California, 1959, 19. Hillís paper includes a record of music at PUC through the 1950ís. It was an important source for this overview. Although Hill asserts that Donaldson taught music full-time for a year and then left, she is listed in a faculty directory published in the 1957 Yearbook, Diogenes Lantern as a teacher of English and music from 1883-1886.
2Walter C. Utt, A Mountain, A Pickax, A College, 1968, Pacific Union College Alumni Association, 13.
3Hill, 25, 26, 28; Utt, 24. My description of Courterís teaching approach and patience favors that offered by Hill, which differs from that provided by Utt.
6Utt, 38; Hill, 52.
7Only ten of the 71 enrolled the first year were college students. Sierkie obituary, Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, 5 May 1932.
8Utt, 54, 55; Hill, 57, 58; 19-13; orchestra photo with Miller as director; faculty listing from the 1957 PUC yearbook, Diogenes Lantern. This yearbook, issued in the 75th year of the college, also contained the first printing of Uttís history which was a primary source for Hillís dissertation..
9After Miller left Healdsburg, he taught organ, voice, and orchestra at Walla Walla College from 1908 to 1911. While there he and a group of students built WWCís first pipe organ. This experience was likely helpful as he came to PUC in 1912.
10Warren Becker, "Organs and Their Masters in the SDA Church," IAMA Notes, Winter/Spring 2003.
11Pacific Union Recorder, 27 November 1969, 1; PUC Viewpoint, Vol. 1, Issue 4, 4-7; Autumn 1998, 8.
13Hill, 85; school yearbooks from that decade.
14Information on Greer and Dortch drawn from Hill, 77-79; Dan Shultz, A Great Tradition, Music at Walla Walla College, 114-116; Dan Shultz, "A Tribute to Clarence William Dortch," The IAMA Journal (1991), 52-54.
15Warren Becker, "Organs and Their Masters in the SDA Church," IAMA Notes, Winter/Spring 2003.
17Hill, 94, 95; Utt, 136.
18International Adventist Musicians Association (IAMA) website biography.
19IAMA website biography, Hill, 96.
20IAMA website biography.
21IAMA website biography.
Faculty listings in the 1957 Diogenes Lantern. Diogenes Lantern (PUC yearbook): 1938, 1939, 1940-45, 1948-53, 1955-70, 74,7.
Del Case, 27 January 2005; John Hafner, 9 June 1991; James Kempster, 2, 16 February 2005; Gennevieve Brown-Kibble, 16 February 2005; Carlyle Manous, 19 January 2005; James Mercer, 27 January 2005;Kenneth Narducci, 28 January 2005; Le Roy Peterson, 28 January 2005; Lynn Wheeler, 24 January 2005;
Viewpoint, PUC alumni magazine, Winter 2005; IAMA website biographies were prepared by the author in consultation with the persons, their families and/or other sources.
A special thank-you to Morgan Wade, student research assistant at PUC, Lynn Wheeler, and Lorraine Field, PUC music department secretary.
Copyrighted by IAMA and Dan Shultz